verticillium wilt

Discussion in 'Maples' started by trish-m, Jun 19, 2006.

  1. trish-m

    trish-m Member

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    I got this website from somebody at Garden Works. They thought that someone may be able to tell me if it was verticillium wilt that killed my Maple. Also, I was going to plant a contorted Filbert to replace it but wasn't sure if the Filbert was susceptible to the verticillium wilt.
     

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  2. Galt

    Galt Active Member

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    Yes verticillium was involved and was probably a primary player in the demise of your maple. Hard to say if the VW was in your maple when you got it or came from your soil, but I suspect that if you replant as intended, you will not have problems.

    Would you kindly let me know the history of the plant. How long you had it, was it potted when you got it or b&b, how long ago did it start showing signs, have you lost wood on the plant previously, how much is still living if any, what type of maple was it?

    All of that would be very helpful simply as experiential knowlege. If everyone that views this thread looks closely at the characteristic coloration on your dead branches and twigs, they will much easier be able to see VW in other maples. We see so much of it that everyone should just get familiar with it.

    You did a good job diagnosing the issue.

    GALT
     
  3. pierrot

    pierrot Active Member 10 Years

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    if the maple has died from Verticillium wilt there are some characteristic discolourations you should be able to find.

    vertilcillium wilt clogs the vascular tissues and caused a greenish black ring to form in the vascular area. you will have to see a cross section of the branch to see of this is visiblere is a link to a pdf file of vertilcillium wilt

    http://cru.cahe.wsu.edu/CEPublications/eb0983/eb0983.pdf from washington state

    from guelph

    http://www.uoguelph.ca/pdc/Factsheets/Diseases/VerticilliumMaple.htm (colour pictures here)

    and from wisconsin
    http://s142412519.onlinehome.us/uw/pdfs/A2537.PDF

    hope this helps
     
  4. trish-m

    trish-m Member

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    The maple has been in the yard since we bought our house 8 years ago. It was in a very poor location beside the garage and was growing in a contorted shape (I think to reach the sun). We moved the Maple about 2 years ago where it was doing fine but needed to be staked. The way we staked the tree, with the string that we used, did some damage to the tree (cutting into a branch). It was fine that way for about a year and then suddenly this year, probably in March the branches started dying off and within a couple months 90% of the tree was dead. There were a number of healthy, new shoots sprouting from the bottom of the trunk though. I don't know what type of Maple it was as we didn't purchase it. It wasn't very big when it started to die though, only about 6 ft tall and 5 ft wide. We have removed it from the garden though. Thank you for your help. I will go ahead and plant the filbert in that location.
     
  5. Rima

    Rima Active Member

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    If the maple died in that location, why would you plant another tree there?
     
  6. trish-m

    trish-m Member

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    I am planting another tree in the garden because it needs it for the overall look. That is why I wanted to know if the Filbert was susceptible to the same disease.
     
  7. Galt

    Galt Active Member

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    Rima,

    Why wouldn't you? It would depend what your assumption is? Was VW in the tree or did the tree get the disease from its new plant location? It is not as cut and dry as "don't plant a maple there for X years."

    Trish-m,

    Thanks for your further information. Best of luck with your new planting.

    GALT
     
  8. schusch

    schusch Active Member Maple Society 10 Years

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    It's possible that the replanting, together with the amount of roots cut, the way it was replanted (too deep, for instance), etc, weakened the tree and the fungus - if it turns out to be that - that was in the tree from the start, took over.
    Similarly if you watered the tree the way you used to, but now there were less roots, it might have suffered from there. The new shoots at the bottom of the trunk might be an indication of the tree trying to survive ?
     
  9. jimweed

    jimweed Active Member 10 Years

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    Galt, what your saying is you can tell verticillium wilt by the colour of the bark on infected branches and twigs? Is that really possible? I know like Pierrot says that brown streaks can be found in the wood of infected branches, but I wasn't aware that there was a specific discolouration to wilt on the exterior. Jim.
     
  10. Galt

    Galt Active Member

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    Jim,

    That's what I am saying. Look at the diseased wood on the plant in question. There are two characteristic color sets that show the VW. The coloration on the wood we can almost always see. The vascular staining is not always visible depending on the size, age, and severity of the infection in the chosen branch.

    Once you know the coloration, you will be blown away as to how many plants are infected and how often the infection presents itself.

    Do I sound crazy?

    GALT
     
  11. pierrot

    pierrot Active Member 10 Years

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    Jim

    In my experience there is no discolouration with verticilium wilt other than the internal xylem tissues. that is whay when somone brings me a sample to look at I always get out the pen knife and start whittlin' away at the centre of the samples.

    In cases I have seen verticillium wilt attack one side of tree then randomly move down the tree to another branch then another and so on.

    I am surprised Gardenworks did not ask for a sample and get their hort guy from the back office to look at it. or maybe a sample was not present ?
     
  12. Galt

    Galt Active Member

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    In my experience, Japanese and Asian maples do not require whittling, but we can do that if we want to confirm or have a large enough branch that we will be able to see what we need to.

    GALT
     
  13. Layne Uyeno

    Layne Uyeno Active Member 10 Years

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    Hi all,

    I will put forth this observation.

    When branch die back occurs due to water stress (not enough) the branch will die back starting at the tip and work it way down until it stops mid branch or until it reaches the next main branch.

    When branch die back occurs due to VW the entire branch can wilt all at once or sometimes can start at the base of the branch and work it's way up(?).

    With trish-m's photos the latter seems to be the case.

    Layne
     
  14. kaydye

    kaydye Active Member Maple Society 10 Years

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    Hope you don't mind if I jump in here. I lost 2/3 of a japonicum this spring and I'm curious about the comment of being able to tell from the look on the outside of the branch. THe thing I noticed on mine was that the branches looked red/black not brown and dead looking after the leaves wilted, so it made it look like the branch had lost the leaves due to stress or other factors and might leaf out again. Gault, is that what you mean about the coloration of the branches?
    Kay Dye
     
  15. Galt

    Galt Active Member

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    Yes. An orange bronze coloration is one and black and white is another. Black and white banding is also a common thing to see. The type of verticillium and the rate of death effects the coloration.

    Thats all for me.
     
  16. kaydye

    kaydye Active Member Maple Society 10 Years

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    Now I have another question about this and can use some expert advice. If half of my japonicum has died due to verticillium wilt, should I dig it and dispose of it? How much of a danger is there of this spreading to other maples in my garden? Also I am wondering about an A.p. 'Aoba Jo' which has died back to about 1/3 of its original growth and what is left is distorted. I cut a branch and tried to whittle it down to look for the marking inside, but didn't see anything. How often is there distorting?
    And a final question, if I may, I received a mailorder (not ebay, a reputable grower) a A.p. 'Cooneras Pygmy' and one part of it has died. Since it was newly planted, I thought it was my fault (soil, watering, etc.) but none of the other fourteen potted maples that I have in the same mix are looking this way, they all look great. So now I'm wondering, do you find wilt on a plant that young, do they have to be in the soil to get this? Just how contagious is V.wilt? I have just in the last two years dug out and destroyed mountains of hostas due to foliar nematodes and I get freaked out about this kind of stuff. And honestly, any failures I've had with maples I have attributed to my lack of growing conditions rather than disease, but with the japonicum looking so well and just dying, I'm getting worried. Thanks for input.
    Kay Dye
    Kay Dye
     
  17. Galt

    Galt Active Member

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    It is most likely the plants that die or are partially dying shortly after coming to you are already infected. The stress of being shipped to you and the process of transplanting stresses and weakens the plant enought so that the disease takes hold. Now, good luck convicing a grower of that. Even if they know or believe you, they will not admit to it. They believe it implies they run a "dirty" operation or that it is somehow their fault and it is not truly or directly their fault either.

    They may buy seedling understock that is already infected or use scion wood from dirty plants and through the entire process, no one takes the time, effort, or money to slow down and even consider cleaning up the plant. The just keep on grafting and send it on to you, hoping it will live long enough so that no one is sure who's fault it is the plant died or is disfigured. I have tried to have this discussions with a couple of growers and when they don't know you from Adam, you won't get the time of day and it might be a cold day before they even offer to replace the plant.

    The japonicum you speak of could have acquired the disease from your soil, but for the most part, I would bet it was internal when you got it. It will probably not be contagious from plant to plant, but if it was in the soil, then contact with that soil by other plants puts them at risk for infection. Again, I tend to believe this is not as common as having a dirty plant to start. So, destruction of the plant is not necessary and if you do remove it, you could forego planting there again, but that is up to you. The diesease can stay in the soil for many years, but it is a gamble if the suseptible plant you plant in that location in the future will get the disease. A strong healthy plant my do just fine. The problem is finding one.

    regards,
    GALT
     
  18. kaydye

    kaydye Active Member Maple Society 10 Years

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    THat eases my mind a lot. I will leave the japonicum in the ground. One more (I think) question. Should I cut off the dead branch on the Coonera's Pygmy I just got?
    Kay Dye
     

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